List of Accepted Posters

Open-source Governance: Online Chat Groups as a Forum for Ecological Citizenship in India

Nicole Rigillo
Abstract: How can mobile technologies enable democratic participation by citizens concerned with urban sustainability issues? Citizens of Bangalore, India’s Silicon Valley, are using mobile chatting apps to create local groups focused on implementing a sustainability agenda – reforming waste management systems, enforcing plastic bans, and revitalizing community spaces. The groups are, however, not simply a means of communication for the citizen-activists who created them; they also allow citizens to petition, critique, and applaud the sustainability plans and activities of local politicians and city workers who are also members of the groups, along with local journalists. Drawing on three months of qualitative research in Bangalore, I argue that the formation of sustainability chat groups counters some of the well-known failures of traditional governance systems in India, and is bringing about a new form of governance that is distinctly “open source” – one characterized by open exchange, collaborative participation, and greater transparency between citizens and government representatives. This suggests that in urban India, as elsewhere, sustainability citizenship is less “liberal” and more participatory, operating through culturally-inflected duties rather than freedoms. In Bangalore, online platforms have become an important forum for articulating and enforcing these duties, for both citizens and political leaders alike.

Constraint-based Methods for Assessing Resilience in Urban Systems

James Williams, Mark Fox and Steve Easterbrook
Abstract: Our poster will present work in progress relating to the assessment of resilience in urban systems. Given the increasing pace of urbanization, the development of effective methods for understanding cities is of the utmost importance for both urban planning and the ongoing operation of urban subsystems. Our goal is to show that constraint-based methods provide a useful means of optimizing the design and analysis of cities, including issues of resilience. Cities are complex adaptive systems comprised of a heterogeneous mixture of physical and social subsystems. The intricate and intertwined nature of these subsystems poses a major challenge. Current modeling methodologies are limited in various respects. In particular, they typically represent a small number of urban processes, with limited means of analyzing interdependencies. They also have great difficulty representing and integrating social aspects of cities. As artifacts, urban models are often constructed in an ad hoc manner, lacking standardized theoretical frameworks and software infrastructure. In contrast, constraint-based methods are adept at integrating disparate concerns and dealing with interdependencies. They provide insight into a variety of issues, including the impact of design decisions and the response of urban systems to perturbation/ disturbance. Lastly, they facilitate the modeling of social aspects of cities.

Predicting Human Count through Environmental Sensing in Closed Indoor Settings

Shamir Ahmed, Abdus Salam Azad, Tarik Reza Toha, Nafisa Islam, Taslim Arefin Khan and Alim Al Islam Razi
Abstract: Detecting human beings count accurately in a closed indoor environment is crucial in diverse application areas including search and rescue, surveillance, customer analytics, abnormal event detection, human gait characterization, congestion analysis, person identification, gender classification and many more. It has significant importance in preventing any intrusion in a secure indoor space. Sensors based technologies are becoming more popular day by day as the regular methodologies are not good enough to ensure enhanced security in a closed indoor environment. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel methodology to detect human count in a closed indoor settings based on four environmental parameters (Carbon dioxide, Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), Nitrogen dioxide, and Sulfur dioxide) and two weather parameters (temperature and humidity). We achieved more than 99% accuracy for some of the classifiers in detecting the number of human present.

A Smart Mobile Solution with Novel MCP, Peak Demand and Hourly Grid GHG Emissions with Multiple Integration Points

Ace Sahebalam, Gary Michor, Greg Doucett and Cherie Ding
Abstract: We present a new Smart Mobile Solution, platform and algorithm for forecasting and tracking Market Clearing Price (MCP) and Peak Demand (PD), and a novel live Decision Maker (DM) for load shifting. The Class A customers pay global adjustment (GA) based on their percentage and contribution to the top peak demand periods. A smart and automated tool can estimate the possible peak at the right time and help them to make the optimal decision to shift their loads to the best time of the day. The shift loader needs to know market price and can forecast the MCP, especially during peak time, to make responsible decisions and provide optimal recommendations. The developed platform solves a linear optimization problem while creating and updating a dynamic predictive model every five minutes to find the best time to shift loads. The platform also computes/predicts Hourly CO2e and Live CO2e, and forecasts emitted CO2e by the electrical power grid. In reducing and/or managing CO2e emissions, it is essential to measure and find ways for objective comparison of different standards, the presented method/solution minimizes the challenges in doing this.

Before and After the Financial Crash: The Corporate Network Evolution and Sustainability Implications

Maria Angela Ferrario, Periklis Andritsos, Niel Chah and Thais Bittencourt
Abstract: The control network structure of transnational corporations (TNC) not only affects global markets, but also holds fundamental implications for policy-making mechanisms underpinning the sustainable use of environmental resources, and a sustained commitment to human welfare and civil liberties. Previous analysis of the TNC network topology has revealed a giant bow-tie structure controlled by a close-knit financial core. However, to our knowledge, little research has been done on (a) how this structure has evolved over time – specifically, before and after the financial crash in 2008, and (b) the implication that the properties exhibited by this structure may have, not so much on financial and social ‘stability’, but on long-term environmental and societal sustainability. Our research uses computational data-driven methods to investigate how the TNC network has evolved in the last 10 years and reflect on its long-term implications. Emerging findings from a pilot study will be presented and discussed.

Smart and green? Methodological challenges for assessing indirect effects of ICT with LCA

Johanna Pohl and Matthias Finkbeiner
Abstract: In the last decades, the understanding of ICT’s environmental effects developed from unrealistic technological optimism towards an increasingly comprehensive understanding of direct and indirect environmental effects. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established tool to assess all potential environmental impacts of a product or service. When assessing ICT impacts, LCA studies mostly deal with direct effects of ICT devices during production use and disposal. The assessment of indirect environmental effects, however, is more complex. As these effects are strongly dependent on ICT’s application, changing use patterns and other long-term effects should be included into the assessment. This calls for interdisciplinary modeling approaches, which must later be integrated with LCA methodology. In particular, when assessing indirect effects as psychological obsolescence, rebound
or induction effects, one must carefully reflect on system boundaries, functional unit or reference systems. Currently, the LCA community also discusses whether the assessment of indirect effects represents an extension of the method or is rather complementary to it. However, the assessment of ICT application’s indirect effects is essential for sustainable/responsible political and corporate decision making. Thus, the poster aims to depict methodological challenges for determining indirect impacts of ICT with LCA and to inspire discussions within the ICT4S community.

How Sustainable and Efficient our Neighbourhoods Really are? – Assessment Framework for Responsive Neighbourhoods and Communities

Spela Verovsek, Matevz Juvancic and Tadeja Zupancic
Abstract: Data-based systems for the assessment of current settings and trends in built environments are essential for achieving sustainable cities, responsive communities or successfully following the climate policies on efficient use of resources. The paper provides an insight into the research conducted by the University of Ljubljana, and the Urban Institute of Slovenia committed to monitoring and management of local resources at the level of neighborhoods. Specifically, the research develops the evaluation model on the case of Slovenian neighborhood, based on the modular system of indicators and to it connected methodology for the interpretation of resulting values. The instrument is based on both, parameters related to existing built environments and parameters related to neighborhood communities, their engagement, attitudes and behaviors, including common spatial values and their ICT-literacy to reach better synergies on different levels. By such structure we are addressing a broad scope of qualitative indicators, often neglected due to measurability issues or data gaps. We seek for solutions by modularity in the assessment framework as well as investigate new ways of capturing/collecting data by citizens (crowdsourcing, collective sensing). The poster presents first two stages of the research process and subjects the outcomes to the debate.

Contacting Congress: ICTs for Representative-Constituent Communication in the U.S. Congress

Samantha McDonald
Abstract: Citizen participation is an important component of the process of policymaking for sustainability. These policies may require localized knowledge and citizen expertise to understand the implications of enacting policies on particular communities. Yet, the current process of citizen engagement with federal policymakers is complex and often undermines a citizen’s ability to participate. In this research, I examine the information and communications technology (ICT) for representative-constituent communication in the U.S. Congress. Using interviews and observations of Congressional staff in Washington D.C., I demonstrate how ICTs mediate communication between representative offices and their constituents. These digital transactions consisting of phone calls, emails, faxes, and social media tend to batch the voices of citizens into quantifiable metrics underused in the policymaking process. The data are used as a form of customer service and as a mark of responsiveness rather than a form of engagement with citizens in the policymaking process. ICTs allow policymakers to record and process citizens transactions in a way that resembles citizen engagement but in reality, leaves much to be desired. Understanding how and why this process unfolds could be a useful tool for sustainable advocates in their efforts to gain more opportunities for engagement in sustainable policymaking.

Green and Sustainable Software: A Research Landscape

Eva Kern, Achim Guldner and Stefan Naumann
Abstract: Green and sustainable software is a relatively young research field. However, the number of corresponding publications, events, questions, and the attention on it increase. In view of the fifth ICT4S conference, we want to take the opportunity to get an overview of the area. To provide a basis for discussion, we created a mind map. It includes aspects mapped in literature reviews and presents a summary of own ideas that we collected over the years. Thus, it represents our perspective and does not claim to be complete. It is more a starting point that needs to be broadened. This is also emphasized by the sub title of the poster. Consequently, our poster calls on everyone to add ideas, ask questions, etc. The next section will provide more information on the poster’s interaction potential. Summarizing, the questions we see related to the research field are: What are topics and how do they interrelate? Where is the connection to the sustainability strategies? Is there a tendency in direction of sustainable by vs. in ICT? What are the motivations and objectives of the research activities?

Teaching Computer Science To All: What Are The Implications For Sustainability?

Horatiu Halmaghi and Elizabeth Patitsas
Abstract: There is a growing international movement for the inclusion of computing in primary and secondary school curricula. This movement presents both opportunities and challenges for sustainability. On one hand, a close relationship between this movement and the ICT4S community can support the meaningful integration of sustainability into CS education. On the other hand, a successful “CS for all” movement will increase the demand for ICT, posing serious challenges to both environmental and social sustainability. The manufacturing, powering, and use of computers have serious environmental and social costs.
This poster’s contribution is to begin a discussion about the sustainability implications of educational initiatives like CS4All. While the ICT4S community has discussed how to incorporate sustainability topics into CS education, we have not yet seriously discussed what is the sustainability of CS education.
We will map out the open questions and tensions around this topic, from the first order questions (e.g. the power consumption of schools teaching CS) to the larger cultural, historical, philosophical, political, and economic questions at hand. This is to spark a discussion about the relationship not only between computing education and sustainability, but also their connections to the kyriarchical structures in which we live.

Comparison of Offloading On Various Mobile Devices For Better Battery Life And Performance

Dagnachew Temesgene, Jari Porras and Janne Parkkila
Abstract: Mobile devices are increasingly becoming part of everyday life. These include smart phones, tablets, wearable devices etc. Due to their mobility aspect, they are always constrained in their size and weight, which limits their resource capacity, e.g. processing power, and battery life. One possible solution for augmentation of such resource-constrained devices is through efficient usage of their surrounding resources.
This paper studies how offloading of tasks to the surrounding resources affects on both the performance of task execution as well as the battery life of the mobile device. Two mobile phones and two tablets (from two different manufacturers) are studied in the experiments to find out the impact of the device characteristics. Two computationally demanding tasks, namely image processing and encryption/decryption, are used in these experiments.
Our results show gains both in energy saving (56-80% and 23-70% depending on the task) and in computational performance (80-90% or 75-85% depending of the task) with these mobile devices. These results are in line with results presented in literature and they show that the offloading could offer a viable approach for resource augmentation of mobile devices towards edge/fog resources emphasized by the new 5G technology.

Data Storage Sustainability: Unused Data or Orphan Data?

Jannatun Noor and A. B. M. Alim Al Islam
Abstract: Nowadays, huge amount of structured and unstructured type of data is stored in public, private or hybrid cloud storage system. Data management optimizing CPU and memory usage in data centers is now the most challenging topic for data scientists. The data which are never used for quite a long time, is unused data. This data can be archived using some erasure policy or using different kind of mechanism. But, there still exist some kind of data in cloud storage, which have no information both in client side or database due to network disconnection, client timeout problem, object versioning, etc. This orphan data or garbage data are great threat for data storage sustainability. Hence, we propose a architecture for detecting such kind of orphan data using OpenStack Ring and scripts optimizing CPU and memory usage. We deploy private media cloud ‘SPMS’ and observe that 20% data are orphan data among 5 TB. SPMS is deployed using OpenStack Swift with 3 replicas and 16384 partitions. Due to 20% garbage data, rsync replication needs 8x higher time and more CPU usage. We lower around 30% CPU usage after deploying garbage deletion daemon, hence rest data replication and uploading will be more faster.

Open data platform and analysis DTU Smart Campus

Ole Schultz
Abstract: For learning and research about more sustainable buildings logging of data such as energy on sub-levels, indoor climate and weather is required. Building management system samples data for control of building installations, but these are proprietary and access is not possible for students and research. In this on-going work is presented the necessary steps needed for Smart Campus Platform design using none intrusive IOT sensors implemented by students and answer and discuss this question: How to utilise the energy- and indoor climate data by using this platform in data analysis and how to extract knowledge about the energy consumption on component level?
Furthermore, the following perspectives will be presented and discussed at the conference: the potential for and objectives in cooperating with industry and undertaking Conceive Design and Operate (CDIO) projects. The platform is going to be used in a new research project ESNAP data-driven energy-screening funded by the Danish Energy Agency and with external partners from industry and Aarhus university, 2018. One of the outcomes of the ESNAP project during the next 1.5 year should lead to models for different installation parts based on energy measurements. Future projects will also include visualisation of data for
nudging studies

ICT, Agricultural Development, and Environmental Justice

Lindsay Barbieri and Sonya Ahamed
Abstract: Within the overarching context of accelerating ecological crises and technological change, information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to transform decision-making in environmental management. While there are opportunities for strengthening participatory processes in data collection and information access, the dangers of emerging ICT-centered environmental monitoring are profound. One risk is the ossification of already deep divides in access to and control over natural resources. Here we focus on data sovereignty and decision-making criteria that are embedded within nontransparent systems, specifically considering the use of ICTs in data collection for environmental sustainability. We explore these issues in two agricultural settings: Vermont and Ethiopia. First, we articulate the social-ecological challenges that ICT is employed to solve. Second, we identify and discuss the points in the data lifecycle that are problematic. Third, we connect these points to broader questions of information systems within the context of global sustainable development. Finally, we explore the application of an environmental justice lens to ask: how can we do the least damage and support concerns about data sovereignty?

Governance Network Analysis of Electronic Waste Management: An Actor-Network Model for sustainability

Homeira Ekhtari
Abstract: The potentials of ICTs to reduce the adverse impacts of transportations and energy consumptions, as the most well-known sectors involved, lead us to underestimate the negative impacts of the pervasive development of Electronic Equipment. The unmanaged electronic waste stockpiles reveal a strong evidence of ineffective management. ICTs development cannot be stopped or hindered as we are living in the digital era. Fortunately, it can be redirected to a sustainable development.
This research investigates the e-waste policy making and implementations based on an actor-network framework for addressing the players and factors to achieve a successful environmental governance. The aim of this research is to provide an e-waste management model. The employed methodology is based on integration of conceptual frameworks of Governance Network theory and Actor-Network theory which examine the interaction between drivers and their translated actions. MOECC of Ontario changed the waste management strategy from a waste recycling improvement to Strategy for a Waste-Free Ontario: Building the Circular Economy. It means that the collaboration and a governance network between governmental and non-governmental organizations plays a key role in the implementation and meeting the sustainability goals. This research is in the preliminary stage and the poster shows a PhD research in progress.

Towards sustainable internationalization of higher education through experiential pedagogy of virtual mobility

Raidell Avello Martínez, Dayni Diaz Mederos and Valentine Cadieux
Abstract: Higher education grapples with making global interconnections accessible across social class and differential mobility & internet access. The internationalization of higher education has changed its nature in recent years, balancing experiential learning through the physical mobility of students with ICT mediated learning. Internationalization issues relevant to ICT4S now include: the internationalization of online curriculum and research, offering dual degrees and enrollment with foreign partners, establishing involvement of international students, creation of international quality assurance frameworks, proliferation of international rankings, increased competition for international students, and the role of recruiting agents. The emergence of concepts focusing on the possibilities of internationalization at home or of the curriculum points to an increasing awareness that internationalization is not necessarily limited to university members physically crossing borders. This project considers the role of ICT4S in integrating social & green versions of sustainability in educational internationalization. Recent setbacks in personal mobility to participate in academic networks across borders, as well as ongoing climate impacts, prohibitive costs of travel, and uneven infrastructure and internet access all highlight the need to create virtual environments where students, faculty and SIOs could share images, experiences and benefits of these exchanges.

Virtual Reality for Piloting Urban Projects

Edmund Konroyd-Bolden and Tamer El-Diraby
Abstract: In 2003, the city of Toronto, after formal and extensive public consultation and numerous amendments to design, started constructing a dedicated lane for streetcars in St. Clair street. A community group did not approve of the project and sued the city—stopping the project for months and causing the loss of millions of dollars.
In 2018, the city faced the same problem in King street. Instead of design-consult-build, a pilot project is currently underway to restrict car access to the street during rush hours. Healthy debate debates about the pilot are ongoing. This highlights the future of decision making: behavior change is integral in any project; prototyping as an interim step in realizing project values and impact; and the centrality of community approval to any new project.
This example and others highlight the value of piloting in decision making in today’s socio-technical culture. In many cases, such physical prototyping will not be feasible. The next best thing is a data-rich and interactive virtual reality portal such as the one suggested here.
We present a proposed framework for conducting interactive virtual reality tests along with social media analytics to support visioning projects and engaging communities.

Resiliency and sustainability of Canada’s built environment under the new wind conditions due to climate change

Hamidreza Naderian, Oya Mercan, Paul Kushner, Xuebin Zhang and Jamil Mardukhi
Abstract: Buildings are becoming more complex, lighter and taller, making them more vulnerable to the long-term effects of climate change, and the associated uncertainty of future wind load characteristics. This brings the need for formulation of adaptation strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change in urban environments, which requires a collaborative effort from a variety of disciplines. This project will investigate the response of selected tall, highly flexible structures together with their surroundings in downtown Toronto under the new wind conditions due to climate change. There is a need for high performance computational resources to perform the necessary computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses and dynamic simulations. The outcome of the research will enable the translation of global climate change into actionable knowledge useful to the area of urban building design. This project will deliver sustainability and resiliency-focused design, as well as retrofit recommendations for practitioners and decision makers with a direct benefit to the residents of Toronto.

Designing a method for integrating Corporate Social Responsibility in the organizational and ICT dimensions

Audrey Sie, Sergio España, Cory Searcy, Sara Martín and Marcela Ruiz
Abstract: This poster presents work done as part of a master’s thesis in Business Informatics. The goal of this project is to design a method that assists organizations with further and comprehensively integrating CSR in their business. It is currently not the issue of persuading organizations to
integrate CSR into their business, but the issue of how to integrate CSR into their business [1]. We address this need by designing a CSR integration method that will guide organizations through the necessary steps to lay a solid foundation for being socially responsible. We also pay special
attention to ICT in relation to CSR. The CSR integration method is composed using the ProcessDeliverable-Diagram-notation, created for information systems development [2], and is accompanied by best practices. Several best practices are supported by enterprise architecture (EA) models. These models capture a specific aspect – for instance the organizational structure, a business process or the supporting ICT layer – of an organization and they allow for a more in-depth understanding of that aspect [3]. The method, best practices, and EA models are based on a literature study and interviews with socially responsible organizations from three different countries: Canada, the Netherlands, and Spain.